Glossary: D

Dovetailing Outcomes

Two or more parties' outcomes, in which the achievement of one facilitates achievement of the other(s). The first step in negotiating anything is to elicit all parties' outcomes, then derive a common set of outcomes by chunking up to a higher logical level. At this point the outcomes are said to be dovetailed.


Inaccurate reproduction of events in any recording medium, including human representation. Distortion in language refers to demonstrably inaccurate comments on any subject.


The process of stepping outside the point of view of experiencing the world from one's physical position; seeing oneself from outside the self and, for internal representations, from outside the image and separate from the sounds.

Discovery Frame

Involves a psychological state, (see State) and an attitude in terms of perception. Expectation, judgement and desire are suspended for the duration of the exercise in order to discover what happens to one's perceptions and ideas as a result of participating in it. That subjective state and attitude in relation to the wider world. ie. the expert being modelled and / or the world at large.


Sudden change in state. A standard light switch is digital, it can only be on or off.

Description (map, model)

An internal representation that we have that guides our behaviour. Primarily we have sensory representational systems, that is, we represent the world in mental images, sound tracks and sensation. There is also secondary representation, language. ie. we can represent our internal pictures, sounds and feelings in language.


The process of excluding portions of experience of the world from one's internal representations, and one's speech.

Deep Trance Identification

A hypnotic process where the subject enters a profoundly altered state and makes arrangements through his or her unconscious mind, in trance, to model specific or general patterns displayed by the model of excellence.

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